5 Different Types of OSHA Inspections

What is an OSHA Inspection?

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is a federal agency responsible for protecting the health and safety of workers in the United States. The organization conducts inspections to ensure employers provide safe working conditions for their employees. OSHA inspections are on-site visits that review workplace conditions and practices, identify hazards, and verify compliance with applicable safety regulations. Inspections can be requested by employees or initiated by OSHA itself, depending on the circumstances.

What are OSHA Inspection Priorities?

When conducting an inspection, OSHA will prioritize certain types of workplaces over others based on risk factor criteria. By prioritizing certain types of workplaces for investigation, OSHA can focus its efforts on those most at risk for hazardous working conditions. Some factors taken into consideration when determining priority include:

  • Industry type
  • Employee population size
  • Past history of violations
  • Complaints from workers or other sources about potential hazards
  • Imminent safety hazards that could cause serious harm or death to workers if not addressed immediately

Types of OSHA Inspections

There are several types of inspections conducted by OSHA. Each type has its own purpose and focuses on different areas related to workplace safety.

1. Imminent Danger Inspections – Imminent danger inspections are ranked as a top priority by OSHA investigators and often trigger same-day investigations. A work environment that has the potential to cause severe physical harm or kill someone qualifies as an imminent danger. Typically, OSHA immediately requests that the employer remove the imminent dangers or remove all employees from the imminent danger area. If the employer does not or is unable to comply, OSHA will issue a citation and alert all employees that they have the right to refuse work in a dangerous environment.

This inspection type is typically reserved for very severe dangers. Examples would include a poisonous gas leak or a malfunctioning machine that has already injured or killed employees.

2. Investigative Inspections – Investigative inspections occur when there is reason to believe that a violation has occurred, but it’s not yet clear what exactly happened or which regulations were violated. In this case, inspectors may conduct interviews with witnesses or review documents related to the incident to determine what took place before making any conclusions about whether a violation occurred and what penalties should be imposed.

An example of this scenario would be an anonymous complaint of alleged hazardous working conditions in a factory. An OSHA compliance officer would be called out to investigate the workplace for hazards.

3. Fatality and Accident Inspections – Fatality and accident inspections take place after a worker dies due to unsafe working conditions or becomes seriously ill or injured at work. These investigations are meant to uncover why the accident happened so similar incidents don’t happen again in the future. They also identify any violations that may have contributed directly or indirectly to the fatality or illness so penalties can be imposed if necessary. 

This type of investigation is particularly serious and is designed to prevent further fatalities or accidents. For example, if a worker is electrocuted due to faulty wiring, the compliance officer would investigate the current wiring system, ensure all repairs are made according to OSHA standards, check that safety precautions are being followed, request extra safety gear, and offer further safety training for workers to prevent future accidents.

4. Programmed Inspections – Programmed inspections involve planned visits from inspectors who are sent out proactively without necessarily being prompted by employees’ complaints about unsafe working conditions. This type of safety inspection allows OSHA personnel to monitor workplaces regularly for compliance with safety regulations rather than waiting until something goes wrong before taking action. 

This type of inspection typically happens on a set schedule. A compliance officer would stop by at a predetermined time to check up on health and safety regulations. The inspection might trigger further investigation into workplace issues if violations are found.

5. Follow-Up Inspections – Follow-up inspections take place after initial corrective actions have been taken following an investigation. When noncompliance with safety regulations at a particular workplace is observed, these follow-up inspections allow compliance offers to ensure workplaces are sticking to the rules. During follow-up visits, inspectors will assess whether all required changes have been made correctly to ensure ongoing future compliance. If a workplace fails to fix health and safety violations, it may trigger further fines.

This type of inspection happens whenever a workplace has claimed to fix any safety issue. For instance, if a factory worker developed lung cancer due to a lack of PPE on the job site, OSHA would follow up after completing the original investigation. They might check that all current workers are provided with proper protective equipment, and that dangerous particulates are kept within legal levels.

Penalties for Committing an OSHA Violation 

If an employer is found guilty of committing one or more violations during an OSHA inspection, then they may face various penalties. Penalties include citations, fines, or criminal charges. In cases where egregious violations have been committed, resulting in serious injury or death, criminal charges may even be brought against offending employers. In these cases, OSHA reports illegal activity to local law enforcement. However, in the vast majority of cases, violations are fixed after a citation, warning, or fine.

In conclusion, employers need to understand the importance of creating a safe work environment. Businesses that ignore OSHA safety regulations put themselves at risk for hefty fines or legal consequences. Most importantly, adhering to the rules keeps employees safe from tragic workplace accidents.

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

There are several different types of inspections conducted by OSHA. Common investigations include imminent danger inspections, investigative inspections, fatality and accident inspections, programmed inspections, and follow-up inspections.
The purpose of an OSHA inspection is to identify workplace hazards and ensure employers are in compliance with safety regulations and standards set forth by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Inspections help protect workers from potential physical harm caused by unsafe working conditions or practices.
The frequency of OSHA inspections varies depending on the type of inspection being conducted. Programmed inspections may be conducted annually, while complaint-based and follow-up inspections can take place any time on an as-needed basis.
OSHA inspectors or investigators are referred to as compliance officers. Compliance officers are trained professionals with expertise in occupational safety and health regulation standards set forth by the agency. They conduct investigations into workplace hazards and evaluate employers’ compliance with regulations.